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        • Answers to Questions Posed in RT Podcast #419

          2 days ago

          Rooster Teeth Poppycock

          It's time for our regular segment in which @Gafgarian (AKA Jeremiah Palmer) provides answers to the burning questions left unanswered in each episode of the Rooster Teeth Podcast. Read on to get closure for When the Ball Drops – #419.


          Are the Tesla Model 3 preorders running behind?

          Perhaps not. Despite the relative quiet from Musk's factory on the subject and a steady decline in stock value over the last year (largely because of the silence), reports as recently as last week say that we may see the Model 3 sooner than later – perhaps much sooner. Concerns over the potential missed delivery date of mid-2018 have been exacerbated over the last few months because of two missed deadlines which Tesla has remained mum on as well. Those are the December 31, 2016 and March 1, 2017 self-assigned due dates for a delivery of a "beta prototype" and "completed beta," respectively. In addition to not having anything to show investors, Musk's team also seemed to have completely ignored these deliverables, opting instead to just not say anything.

          It should be noted that with both the Model S and Model X, Tesla also missed these so-called "prototype" deadlines, choosing to instead show off their test model months later. In both of these cases, they were able to claim that they "succeeded" in providing the test model as promised, despite not delivering on any of the incremental stages between. This left many investors in the dark during the production of those models, and, while both were ultimately released later than intended, the overall opinion of investors remained positive enough to trigger future investment in the Model 3.

          As time has passed since the record-breaking pre-orders associated with the Model 3 and little information has come from Tesla, investors have predictably gotten nervous, causing some to dump their investment. However, a recent Forbes articles has led some to feel that a few may have preemptively jumped ship. According to anonymous sources within Tesla that were privy to a private investor call, Musk may have made the surprising executive decision to skip the "Beta Prototype" phase completely. Musk reportedly stated, "...release candidates should be ready for driving internally within two weeks." This means that the standard release cycle of pre-alpha, alpha, beta, release candidate, pre-production, and finally production may have been internally usurped. While apparently skipping over the beta stages of development and going straight to release candidates has served to further fray some nerves, Musk elaborated on the subject a bit by pointing out that lessons learned from previous Tesla iterations have allowed them to walk into this production with more preparation. Pointing out that, "The Model 3 has 1.5 kilometers of wiring. The Model S has 3 kilometers of wiring, so we simplified the wiring system considerably." Production details like these have been further streamlined allowing for better scalability of the model's production.

          What does all of this mean? Possibly nothing. Ultimately, the company's track records say a lot about their opinions on the importance of a timely delivery. At this point I think that Tesla is going to do what Tesla thinks is best for the business, product, and the consumer. If this means @gus waits a year for his Model 3 then that is just what he signed up for. Given previous knowledge of their past delivery schedules, it would be foolish to "bank" on the idea that you will be driving your Model 3 by this time next year. In this case, "hoping for the best but preparing for the worst" seems key, and a year or more from now, when you are $30k+ poorer and a brand new Model 3 pulls into your driveway, you can be just as surprised as the Tesla investors are.

          The forced perspective of Cinderella's Castle?

          Fair warning to those who don't want some of the magic of Disney spoiled, you may want to keep scrolling. I know that discussing the truths of Disney can sometimes be compared to discussing other "magical" truths and I'll not be responsible for any of that nonsense. So, those of you are still sporting your Mouseketeer hats from back when you had to pay for Disney on TV, be warned, you may want to keep scrolling.


          We learned a little bit about this in a previous Podcast Answers post on the Disney lore, but to elaborate, Disney is absolute not a rookie when it comes to the integration of forced perspective. Both Disneyland and Disney World have leveraged the power of forced perspective since their original inception and design. Various attractions take advantage of this optical illusion in order to make the visitor feel smaller, larger, closer, farther, etc. Notable uses of this method include the walls in the "growing room" of the Haunted Mansion, and the slightly elongated bricks, windows, and door frames of Main Street USA so the walk to Cinderella's Castle feels much longer than the walk out of the park in the other direction. The buildings of Main Street USA are built with a forced perspective vertically as well since most of them do not have functional upper floors. This makes the buildings appear taller than they actually are, which, at various angles from within the park, allow the rest of the scenery beyond Main Street USA to be visible.

          As @bgibbles suggested, the castles are no exception to the use of forced perspective with every castle throughout the various Disney parks taking advantage of it in some way. Again, as mentioned by Blaine, the primary reason for this, at least in Florida, is due to a height requirement by the FAA which states that any structure taller than 200 feet must be equipped with a flashing red light to warn approaching aircraft. The desire to not have a flashing red light, combined with the desire to make the castles look immense, led the Disney Imagineers to rely on the powers of forced perspective. By shrinking the bricks as they ascend the towers and making the iconic top spire half of its actual scaled size, the impression of the top of the castle being much further away from you on the ground is easily conveyed. The actual height of Cinderella's Florida home is only 189 feet and it is still the second tallest castle of all Disney parks, eclipsed only by the Enchanted Storybook Castle in Shanghai, China; and even then by a mere 8 foot difference.

          Perhaps one of the greatest uses of forced perspective in all of Disney, however, is that of Beast's castle. Revealed to the public in early 2012, the looming presence of Beast's cursed home on the hill was a welcome addition to the FantasyLand expansion. With the added ability to eat "inside" it at Be Our Guest restaurant, guests were immediately captured by the magic of Disney World's latest destination. I personally was there shortly before Be Our Guest opened and was able to easily make out the looming ramparts of Beast's home. Looking back on it, there is no doubt that I assumed the castle to be a huge structure... I now know that I could not have been more wrong.

          Here is a picture in case you doubted the power of imagination, a bit of training in forced perspective engineering, and some well-placed scenery.


          Why don't dishwashers always run the sanitize setting?

          The short answer is mostly related to energy consumption, but there is also a healthy amount of concern toward melting certain items. Formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation, NSF International has determined that the temperature required to "sanitize" non-porous dishes is no less than 150 degrees Fahrenheit. A standard dishwasher cycle runs with your hot water at its base temperature. In other words, no additional heating takes place and your dishes are washed in water that is typically around 120 degrees. During a sanitize cycle, a dishwasher will run that water through heating coils prior to the wash cycle beginning. This will temporarily bump the water temperature beyond the 150-degree sanitization point. Naturally this additional step adds time and energy consumption to the process. The exact amount of additional time and energy consumed varies based on the make, model, and age of your dishwasher, but, on average, the full cycle tends to be around 5–18 minutes longer and uses an additional 0.5–1 kilowatt hour.

          This extra time and energy, the possibility of melting anything plastic, and the additional wear to your machine has led most appliance companies to suggest that the use of the sanitization cycle should not be considered a regular use case in most households.

          What is Potassium Permanganate?

          Potassium Permanganate is an antiseptic and is a key ingredient in water purification, various medicines, and, curiously, emergency marking snow. Also known as Condy's Crystals, the normally grayish-black powder can be purchased at most home improvement stores and is also sometimes found at wilderness equipment and camping retailers.

          When combined with various other ingredients, even in small amounts, this versatile powder can have drastically different outcomes. For example, if combined with Glycerine or antifreeze, it will start a chemical fire. The addition of sugar will produce a large amount of smoke and, in the case of Onoway, Alberta, a mixture with water is used for purification purposes. While larger quantities can absolutely be harmful if ingested, a toxic dose would require above a 100 mg per kilogram of body weight concentration, which is much higher than Onoway's mixture. At that concentration, the solution would actually become a more solidified purple-ish soup. If pink, however, it is perfectly safe to consume even if it does look like a watered down slime from Ghostbusters II. That said, the pink solution has been known to cause a few stains on your clothing, so, if your water is pink, maybe hold off on doing the laundry at least.

          What would happen if your balls never dropped before puberty?

          If your balls do not descend by age one, it is recommended that you immediately confer with a urologist and surgeon to discuss options. Most initial treatments will include some type of hormone therapy in order to attempt to artificially "trigger" the natural movement of the testes. By age three, if they still have not dropped, invasive surgery is highly recommended. While undescended testicles through puberty are extremely rare, usually due to an early age diagnosis and treatment if it were an issue, delays in ball "droppage" has been linked to extremely low sperm count and even some forms of testicular cancer though there have been very few studies on the subject to the general rarity of the condition.

          Can you choose your cell phone's area code?

          For the most part, yes. Most cell phone providers will give you the option of choosing whichever area code you prefer, though, depending on which representative is helping you, they may or may not actually ask you. Similarly, most providers also allow you change the area code of your existing phone number. Sprint even goes so far as to offer it through a simple automated form on their website.

          Why are TV show seasons so short these days?

          In the long long ago, the before time if-you-will, TV seasons had more episodes. Most had upwards of 20+ and, in the very early days of television, it wasn't unusual for seasons to be longer still. Lucille Ball and her critically acclaimed 1951 sitcom, I Love Lucy, debuted with a 35-episode first season. It ran from October to June and, because of a scheduling quirk, even released new episodes on Christmas and New Year's Eve. The next few decades of broadcast television saw the average television season length decline considerably, and by the late 1970s, the "standard" 22 episode model had been pretty strongly established. Then came cable TV...

          Initially cable stations stuck to the standard model of shorter episodes and longer seasons; however, when premium cable stations like HBO and Showtime began offering their own original programming, opting for what they deemed to be "quality over quantity," the game began to change. The shorter seasons, with longer episodes and no commercial breaks, allowed for an arguably more impressive scripting process. Additionally, the promise of a limited engagement began to draw well-known names into the story. Perhaps sensing the shift, the standard cable channels began embracing the scripted series, and networks like USA, WB, and TNT all started dropping the 22-episode standard in favor of the more conservative 13 or so.

          As with most things, the major broadcast channels were slow to follow and really have only started to really embrace the shorter season within the last few years. The cable channels quickly noticed another perk beyond the draw of viewers and advertising: the shorter season fit very nicely into a calendar quarter, essentially allowing a channel to base earnings or losses on a show's popularity. Programming for multiple shows became a much easier thing to manage, and show quality was more easily measured due to more severe changes in viewership. According to AMC president, Charlie Collier, planning a show became more about great storytelling and less about filling a predetermined timeslot, and it was evident to the networks and viewers. He stated that, “We would look for the window, no matter the length, where we thought our storytelling could stand out."

          The season lengths continue to dwindle, and while there is some evidence to suggest that dipping under the "8 episode" mark is too few for American audiences, most cable stations have attempted this at one time or another. Reasons vary by channel, but most programming directors point to shorter seasons as a way to finance new possible hits. In other words, if Game of Thrones is limited to a seven-episode season, then some of the money saved can be dedicated to Westworld's $100 million budget. A larger catalog of shows naturally attracts a larger overall audience. This is imperative as streaming services like Netflix, Amazon, and Hulu continue to cut into the premium original content business. While HBO execs have remained pretty quiet on the subject, it is a pretty common thread that by producing shorter seasons of already established shows they save money on production as well as free up the schedule for other potential hits.

          Another likely factor in the creation of shorter seasons of your favorite shows is changes to the "syndication" model since streaming services became more mainstream. The past formula for syndication required hitting the critical "100-episode" mark in order to lock down distribution. Essentially, once an episode reaches the syndication minimum of 100 episodes, the host network would be able to begin selling older episodes of the show to air as reruns on other channels. This not only potentially drove new viewers back to the still-running show, but also brought additional monies to all those financially involved with its original production. Until a few years ago, syndication was something of a "Holy Grail" pinnacle of television production, and, while it doesn't guarantee continued success, most syndicated shows are able to bring about at least a little bit of extra money for those involved. The elusive 100-episode mark has also been viewed as somewhat of a "hostage" situation in certain cases, most notably with popular shows like Community and My Name is Earl "losing" and being canceled only a few episodes shy of the syndication threshold. With the growing popularity of the streaming services listed above, the idea of "syndication" has shifted dramatically, with Netflix and Amazon both being quick – sometimes after only a few weeks – to pick up even marginally popular new shows for what could be thought of as modern "syndication."

          Perhaps a bit surprisingly, some of the biggest proponents, in general, of these shorter seasons are the shows' production teams! From showrunners to writers and cast and crew, all seem to really prefer the 10-episode arc over the 20-something. Naturally their reasons vary, but whether it is less of a rush through writing and production or the ability to gain a greater understanding of the character, I don't know that I really mind the shorter seasons. Personally, the binge model championed by both Netflix and Amazon is one of my favorite parts about streaming television, and it would be a nightmare to stream a full day's worth of television, especially given that I likely only give a shit about half of those episodes. That said, interested in your thoughts here. Do you all prefer the streaming binge model, the shorter seasons, or would you like to see Game of Thrones go the way of General Hospital and give us a new episode every day as long as each was accompanied by at least one gratuitous nude person?

          P.S. For those wondering about the differences between British television and American television, the point I made in the last paragraph is really a good explainer on that as well. To hear the BBC writer/producers explain it, "British TV is about writing a great story and American TV is about selling a great product." I'm not sure how true that actually is, but I do know that BBC One only has adverts between shows, and the writing staff is typically MUCH smaller for British shows. Those are the facts; I leave you to your own conclusions...

          How do they pick people for jury duty?

          Great question! Unfortunately there is not really a short answer for this, as each state has some variances in their selection process as well the rules surrounding exemptions, qualifications, pay, level of involvement, etc. At the federal level, your qualification for being selected is that you are a registered voter and/or you have a driver's license or state-issued ID in that particular district. In attempts to ensure a fairly randomized selection, your name will be removed from the pool if you have served in the last two years; however, it should be noted that this will likely not disqualify you from serving as a state juror for your local county, and it is not unusual for some to be called multiple times in their lifetime. A study by the National Center for State Courts determined that while 32 million potential jurors may be summoned for jury duty in a year, the average service is only around 8 million, so it is very possible for you to get summoned for jury duty but not actually "called," which would cause your name to be dropped back into the pool.

          In addition to the legal qualifications for jury duty, there are few options at your disposal to excuse yourself from serving. Aside from current incarceration, military service, and medical emergency, there are precious few additional resources at your disposal to get out of serving. If you have no interest in serving, you are much better off attending the summons as requested and, during selection, ensuring that you are disqualifying yourself. Obviously, I am not suggesting you lie, but, in most cases, being fully honest will disqualify you anyway.

          As someone who has served as a juror twice, I highly recommend approaching it with an honest curiosity and openness. It obviously isn't an experience that is for everyone, but it could quite literally be an experience that you may never have another chance to be a part of. Despite a somewhat "uncomfortable" experience due to the content of the last case I sat on, I would absolutely participate if I were once again chosen.

          In my research, I stumbled across this interactive test created by the NY Times where you can see if you would be selected as a juror for a particular case and why, or why not. Be sure to comment below with your result.

          I was not chosen because apparently the plaintiff was "scared of how biased I would be in favor of the defendant."

          What is the American equivalent of "dogging"?

          Best I can tell, there is no "American equivalent" excepting the more formalized bucket of "exhibitionism." I suppose that the concept of "parking" is similar, though neither exhibitionism or parking really capture what "dogging" is all about. For those not in the know, Urban Dictionary tells me that dogging is the British slang term for engaging in public sex while others, typically strangers, watch. Roughly a decade ago, the internet blew up with various articles stemming from "insider reports" on what is apparently quite the craze in British society. While dodging (read "getting distracted by") several websites dedicated to a more visual appreciation for the pastime, I was able to glean that it has progressively become more of a mainstream act in America as well, with "dogging" forums and impromptu meetups becoming a relatively normal site in several popular parks within major cities.

          I, personally, was a bit surprised to learn how much this is apparently a thing, and now I don't know if I should feel disappointingly old and out-of-touch or strangely okay that I've never had to witness/participate in this...

        • Answers to Questions Posed in RT Podcast #418

          3 days ago

          Rooster Teeth Poppycock

          It's time for our regular segment in which @Gafgarian (AKA Jeremiah Palmer) provides answers to the burning questions left unanswered in each episode of the Rooster Teeth Podcast. Read on to get closure for Burnie the Paranoid – #418.


          Smarter Every Day, Veritasium, and the coriolis effect?

          Check out the videos here.

          Are identical twins "Natural Clones"?

          As most answers for the Podcast questions, this answer largely depends on your own thoughts on what a "clone" actually is. If we were to split semantic "hairs," then the quick-and-easy answer would be no. This is because if you clone a plant or an animal, you would refer to the original as the clone's parent. Since a twin would be a "clone" of a sibling, they would not be considered a clone under the standard connotation of the word. However, another piece of a clone's definition is that it contains identical DNA, which, in the case of twins, is the case.

          If we were to really dive into the science of both options, we would learn a few important points that may help us to decide on the best solution to this answer. For identical twins, their DNA is nearly the same, their blood type is always the same, but their fingerprints are ALWAYS different. This is because fingerprints are determined by a number of in-utero factors. While twins' DNA is nearly identical because they share the same genetic blueprint, their growth as two separate embryos which compete over nutrients and position within the womb leads them to have different experiences during gestation. That said, comparing twins' fingerprints will usually find several similarities. This is because the basic characteristics of fingerprint patterns are genetically defined; however, especially near the end of the first trimester, factors such as the aforementioned womb position, as well as hormone levels, blood pressure, and nutrition can cause very real differences between prints. Prior to modern genetic testing, the similar fingerprint markers were actually used to determine whether a set of twins were truly identical or just very similar looking fraternals.

          This difference in fingerprints would exist whether these twins were naturally taken to term and birthed or if they were separated and birthed years apart, as in Gavin's proposed "natural cloning" experiment. There is strong evidence to suggest that even a fully artificial – and controlled – gestation and birth would lead to these fingerprint differences. Short of a "time-loop" copy of your previous self, reproducing an exact clone (including fingerprints) of another human being will likely never be fully attainable.

          This leads us to the next important part of this question, which regards which point one would be determined to be a "clone" of another. Do they need to be an exact copy, down to the fingerprint? Merriam-Webster has a few different definitions of "clone"; surprisingly, none of these seem to mandate an exact replica of another being. All variations of the first definition require "genetically identical cells" and the second definition is only, "one that appears to be a copy of an original form." The statement of the "appearance" of a copy means that, depending on who you may ask, the inconsistencies around fingerprints may not be a relevant clarification. In regards to the first definition, in the case of an artificial clone or a twin, their genetic material is identical, despite slight differences in their fingerprints or other characteristics which may be influenced by intrauterine hormone levels or their environment during growth.

          All of this information leads me to conclude that Gavin may actually be right about this. Given the relative ambiguity of the definition of a "clone," the reality is that, depending on your own interpretation, thinking of twins as "natural clones" may not be that difficult. That said, I'm really curious about the opinions of the community on this one. This question, specifically, was one of those that I occasionally answer which completely changes my opinions on something as I investigate it more. Definitely entered into this one with the idea that Gavin was nuts... perhaps not so much.

          Learn Spanish - Spell "SOCKS"!

          Why does Zelda: Breath of the Wild have weapon degradation?

          Breath of the Wild director Eiji Aonuma has stated that, when considering the addition of weapon degradation in the latest entry in the Zelda franchise, the team was hoping that it would encourage players to approach battling in a more tactical way. By making every weapon capable of breaking after repeated use, they naturally diminish the importance of having the best weapon available and bump up the importance of collecting, repairing, and thinking in between battles.

          During a 2016 interview with Gamnesia, Aonuma said the game "...encourages the player to carefully use their weapons and not swing it every which way however they want. We also believe that by leading the player to go grab weapons from enemies and increases the amount of battles they have to go to and gives the battles a lot more intent, and it worked out really great. So that's why it's in there."

          Does airplane mode kill the Bluetooth controller connection on the Switch?

          Similar to your phone, toggling "Airplane Mode" on the Switch WILL disable your device's Bluetooth connection, which means the Joy Cons will also cease working, assuming they aren't docked to the system. However, also like your phone, you do have the ability to manually toggle back on both Bluetooth and WiFi, despite Airplane Mode being enabled. The functionality of Airplane Mode is just an easy way to shut down both connectivity options at once.

          Was Wormtongue a wizard?

          According to the Middle-Earth Encyclopedia, there were only ever five known Istari, or wizards, in Middle-Earth lore. Grima Wormtongue was not counted among these. However, with the help of Saruman the White and an unknown influence, he was able to successfully "invade the mind" of the great King Theoden of Rohan. Much of this pivotal storyline should be familiar to those who have seen Peter Jackson's adaptation of the Two Towers; however, there are some additional bits of information which make Wormtongue's involvement in the War of the Ring even more interesting.

          Chief among these is the fact that it was he, not Gollum, that pointed the Nazgul toward the Shire. The curious moviegoer may have wondered about the Nazguls' ability to locate the Baggins' residence when the only two words uttered by Gollum where "shire" and "Baggins." In Tolkien's Unfinished Tales: The Hunt for the Ring, we learn that, when traveling from Isengard to Edoras, Grima was beset by the Nine Ringwraiths and, in fear, told them all he had learned from Saruman about the ring and Bilbo, its owner at the time. This information included the exact location of the relatively unknown Shire and the Hole of Bag End, of which Saruman was aware due to previous conversations with Gandalf about the "incident with the dragon."

          Additionally, for those among who desire to rival @Chris in LOTR fanaticism, Grima's tale doesn't end locked in Saruman's tower, guarded by angry trees. Instead, he and Saruman are released, after Gandalf destroys Saruman's staff and much convincing on the part of Saruman toward Treebeard the Ent. Eventually, they found their way to the Shire and choose to invade it. After initially winning control of Bag End, Saruman is overthrown by Frodo and restless Hobbits in the Battle of Bywater. As Saruman is exiled from Bag End and the Shire, he blames Grima for misfortune and beats him, not for the first time. Apparently this was one lash too many and Grima, in a vengeful rage, slit Saruman's throat. Wormtongue was quickly dispatched by a group of nearby Hobbit archers. It was his and Saruman's death which officially closed the War of the Ring's story.

          Is it illegal to collect emails via a retail transaction receipt?

          While I was unable to find any sort of federal regulation blocking this act, several states have added laws to their books to prevent this sort of thing. Most notably was a lawsuit brought upon Nordstrom in 2013 in a California court which alleged that the collection of email addresses during a purchase with the intent to send marketing emails should fall under California's 1974 Song-Beverly Credit Card Act which made it illegal to require consumers to provide their zip code for credit card transactions. This suit alleged that email addresses constituted personally identifiable information (PII) and should not be a requirement of retail purchase. Furthermore, the suit meant to clarify that using email addresses collected for the purpose of electronically sending a copy of a receipt to a consumer, to build an email list for a marketing campaign went beyond questionable business ethics.

          As a result of this lawsuit, California law was amended to clarify a proper process of email collection that clearly defines the retailer's intention. This "clearly defined" process requires a retailer to wait until after the transaction has completed and the receipt delivered to the customer, via email or physically, before again requesting their email for marketing reasons.

          While this hasn't set a precedent of clarifying whether a person's email is technically PII, it still has been a step in that direction. Opponents of the ruling, namely retailers, claim that the CAN-SPAM act, discussed below, has governed these transactions sufficiently for over a decade while the rest of us have found our own way to combat the spam. Personally, I have an email address exclusively for receipts and signups that I couldn’t care less about. I haven't checked it in probably five years and I can't imagine what kind of nonsense lives in there.

          What does it take 7 days to unsubscribe from a mailing list?

          It doesn't. Or at least it shouldn't, if someone has built their notification service in any reasonable sort of way. However, several marketing campaigns are actually run through third-party emailer services, such as Mailchimp, and while they do have automated unsubscribe lists, it could, depending on the size of the operation, take time for an actual human to verify removal. There is, in many cases, a requirement for a human approval, or acknowledgement, of an unsubscribe list which will determine the actual removal from future promotional materials that are manually triggered by the company. Assuming the company is leveraging the same email service for the next marketing campaign, a service like Mailchimp should take care of the heavy lifting and easily clean up the new list based on the most recent unsubscribe list's content.

          The reason for the seemingly arbitrary "7 day" message is anyone's guess, but it is likely related to the CAN-SPAM Act compliance. The CAN-SPAM (Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing) Act was enacted in 2003 and provides the guidelines for keeping email marketing campaigns on the "up-and-up." According to the CAN-SPAM Act, all unsubscribe requests must be honored within 10 business days. Given this knowledge, as well as the idea that email marketing campaigns are typically scheduled/planned well in advance, it is likely the "7 day" message is given as a buffer to allow time for the unsubscribe list to be confirmed and implemented without having to worry about rushing to block already scheduled marketing campaigns from sending.

          Did Hugh Jackman ever wear the yellow spandex Wolverine suit?

          No, he hasn't. This has been despite a pretty strongly divided fanbase on the subject with most, especially those claiming to be the "comic faithful," pretty upset about Wolverine's lack of yellow and blue spandex over the years. The X-Men franchise has passed through the hands of many directors over the years, and throughout the commentary and interviews, questions about the iconic mutants' costumes, or lack thereof, have been a pretty regular occurrence. Interestingly, the answers seem to be strangely similar, to the point that the conspiracy theorists among you may even go so far as to say that something sinister may be afoot. The common response to the oft-asked question is typically along the lines of "staying true to the story" or "the real [character] would never wear that, could you imagine?"

          Frequently dismissed as just one of those things that get lost when making the jump from the arguably over-the-top "camp" of comic books to the dramatic tales of the silver screen, the loss of the iconic outfits has been more than a way to distance themselves from the colorful world of comics for many. The video below actually does a great job of arguing the point for the inclusion of the over-the-top color and camp of the comic realm. Unfortunately, it does ignore one very important observation when it comes to comic adaptations to film: that there are far more movie fans than comic fans. If the point of movie-making is to sell tickets, it is arguably a much tougher sell to those who have never picked up a comic if your lead character is a hunky Aussie in yellow spandex... or perhaps not?

          Are wolverines and badgers similar?

          While both animals are of the Mustelidae (commonly known as the Weasel) family, tend to live in colder climates, and have gained a reputation for ferocity over the years, there are a few very real differences between them. First, the wolverine is easily twice the size of a badger. At 80 pounds, it is stockier, almost bear-like; with thicker fur, a significantly longer lifespan, larger teeth, a broader diet; and is generally more clever hunter. The badger, for its part, excels in other areas, namely its ability to climb, dig, and swim, in which it frequently participates as a means of survival and hunting. Other differences include the solitary nature of the wolverine when compared to pack mentality of the badger, as well as their den preferences which, for the badger, are typically underground tunnels known as "setts" and, for the wolverine, are usually a simple hole habitat.

          Your turn... who would win?


          Is Logan canon?

          Without going into spoiler territory, according to the writer/director James Mangold, "In a way, all these stories connect. But to say, at least from the perspective of this character where we find him ... he feels like those movies are are slightly aggrandized versions of their own past. But I hope you're never sure which it is we're saying – is it that Logan has gotten so disappointed in his life and in the direction that mankind has taken that he can no longer see the past realistically? Or is it that the past has been exaggerated?" Conversely, in a separate interview, Hugh Jackman stated, "It’s a standalone movie in many ways. It’s not really beholden to timelines and storylines in the other movies."

          While these two points may seem to contradict each other, later interviews with the two of them confirmed that Logan is officially canon. To clarify Jackman's point, the two said that the goal was to allow the audience to make up their own interpretation of the original films in relation to Logan's storyline, leaving the implication on the table that the previous entries in the story may have been exaggerated at times.

        • Making a Muppet Jon: A Tale of Hot Glue, Foam, and Patience

          3 days ago

          Rooster Teeth Poppycock

          By @QuirkyQritters

          Dedicated to my mom and her support, Even Bregman, and Jon Risinger (may his hair flow forever).


          If you are reading this, you must have enjoyed my Muppet version of Jon Risinger on the latest episode of On The Spot. Well, rejoice! For I am here to tell you how I made him so maybe you can make your own Muppet Jons! Or Burnies! Or Guses. Or whomever you would like to Muppetfy. Maybe even yourselves!

          First, I would like to give a HUGE thank you to Muppet Central, Adam Savage on Tested (who made his own Muppet in Jim Henson's Creature Shop), and a bunch of random Google images which gave me an idea on how to do what I wanted to do. This was actually my first time making a Muppet, and both of these sources were amazing in educating myself (and others) in different methods of creating Muppets.

          I have admitted that I am no expert in making Muppets. I’m kind of a “adaptable” artist. If there is something I want to do, I figure out how to do it. Which brings us to our first step in Muppet making: research. Yes, hold your groans. Seriously, there is NO shame in looking up how to do anything. And after reading this, if you feel a deep and burning desire to make a Muppet, I encourage you to look up other tutorials, methods, and construction diaries. It seriously helps a ton, and will probably help you in OTHER artistic endeavors as well. I actually say art is a lot like math. If you know the basics, you can kind of figure out the more advanced stuff as you go.

          The second thing I am going to admit is I made mistakes. I will include them in here so you can learn from them like I did.

          After doing much research, I bought supplies. My advice here is COUPONS COUPONS COUPONS. Stock up, look them up online, stuff them in your wallet. Coupons mean less stress in your bank account and therefore less stress on you.

          Supplies Needed

          1. Needles, pins, and thread

          2. Paper and sharpie

          3. 1” high density foam (other Muppeteers suggest ½” foam, but I just used what I already had)

          4. Scissors or other cutting device (safety first!)

          5. Hot glue sticks or contact cement (I used hot glue)

          6. Spray adhesive (Make sure to read up on what you are getting to make sure it doesn’t melt polyurethane foam. I used 3M Super 77.)

          7. Some gasket rubber

          8. A few yards of polar fleece

          9. Synthetic dye (optional)

          10. Ping pong balls

          11. Red, black, and pink felt

          12. A wig

          13. 18-gauge wire

          14. Two strings of glass beads

          15. Acrylic paint

          16. Two tomato sticks (or other pole-like device)

          Step 1: Sketch Character Designs

          I then did some quick-and-dirty character designs. I looked at many pictures of Jon Risinger from all different angles (it’s hard to find a good side shot of Jon, so I had to guesstimate his nose shape) and drew how I thought he’d look as a Muppet. When I felt satisfied with my sketches, I actually moved right to the construction.


          Step 2: Mouth Plates

          I began immediate work on the “mouth plates,” which is what Muppet makers call the upper and lower sections that make up the Muppet mouth. In my research (again, thank you Muppet Central), I found that people suggested gasket rubber as the best material for Muppet mouths, as it does not deform or easily degrade. For a quicker or less expensive option, people also use thick cardboard, lightweight wood, or plastic container lids. If it’s moderately stiff, it’s been used in a Muppet mouth. That… didn’t sound… right, but it’s true.

          I took my two squares of gasket rubber (found in the plumbing section of Lowe’s hardware store, they are about 6”x6”) and I used a compass (the geometry tool not the directional tool) to get a good-sized semicircle out of the squares. I made them as large as possible because I figured Jon would probably perform with it, and thus needed to be larger than what my hands would grab if I did the duck shadow puppet thing where you flatten your four fingers then place your thumb against them. I have tiny fingers, so I sized it up by about 1.5x.

          I put the two pieces on a piece of felt, with the two straight edged sides facing each other, and about an inch (maybe less) of space between them. Then you hot glue the gasket semicircles to the felt in that pattern.

          I actually messed up here, but it was more of an inconvenience to me than detrimental to the puppet. It actually might have helped. I was SUPPOSED to glue it to the red felt (for the inner mouth palate to be red, with a black cutout representing the throat and a pink piece representing the tongue). Because I had the black felt attached instead (oopsie), I just hot glued the red felt over that. Then on the unfelted side you glue… another piece of felt! I used the pink since I was just going to use it for a tongue anyway.

          Quick note, I DIDN’T glue the gasket semicircles right in the center of the felt; I kind of put them off to the side with about ¼” of fabric extending beyond the rubber gaskets themselves. If you sew, you know this extra fabric around a pattern is called “seam allowance.” If you don’t sew, now you know. When you space your pattern (or in this case, gasket pieces) in a way that uses as little fabric space as possible, you can be more efficient and have more excess fabric to use for other things. I call this “fabric management.”


          Once everything was glued, I cut around the gasket pieces, maintaining that ¼” seam allowance. Remember that extra piece of felt? It helped out here. That “felt sandwich” acts almost like a spring. It causes some resistance when you bend the plates together in a “>” shape so the mouth always springs back open. (That’s what that space between the plates was for, by the way. It was so you could bend the plates from this shape: “ŒD” when laid flat, to this shape: “<” when held, as seen from the side view.) That extra piece of felt added some extra spring.

          I then sewed the pink and red pieces of felt together using a “Henson stitch.” Named after the Muppet Master himself, this stitch allows the fabric to pill around the fleece when you run a needle over the seam, so the seam can be hidden. It might be a little complicated to explain (I actually recommend watching a YouTube video on how to do it), but I will do my best.

          Henson Stitch Tutorial

          First off, it might help to watch this video to get an idea of what this looks like:

          Knotting a piece of thread (I always use upholstery thread because I think the materials will fall apart before that stuff does and it is super hard to snap), you thread the needle through the underside of the fabric you are sewing so the knot is on the “hidden” side of the fabric (the fabric that will not be seen once it is tucked in). We will say this is the pink felt, for instance. Then you stitch over into the front side of the other side of the fabric (in this instance, the red felt) so that it is parallel…like this: “|” where one end of the line is where you started and the other end is on the other piece of fabric. Your needle should be UNDER the OPPOSITE piece of fabric/red felt, right? Then you move that needle under a bit horizontally on the same piece of fabric (red felt) and poke it through so there is a line like this: “_” on the underside of the fabric (we are talking about the red felt still). Now the needle is ABOVE the fabric again, and we actually take it and stick it through the ORIGINAL hole where the knot is (pink fabric). Pull a bit to tighten the seam and then take that needle and push it through so it comes out again in the same direction you did the red felt line, like this: “_” where the “_” was under the fabric, but go a little further. Then repeat the above steps.


          Step 3: Hand Straps

          Once the entire felt mouth has been sewn around the gaskets, you can attach the hand straps. Some people make cone-like covers, or strips of fabric. I just took a 2” piece of elastic that went halfway across the “upper” plate and sewed it to either end of the semicircle, parallel to the straight edged back. I now have an elastic strip. I sewed off a 1-2” section in the middle of the strip (so the strip had a break in it like this: [_||_] ). This way the performer could slip his pointer, ring, and pinky (not the middle, so you can move that around for more stability and comfort) fingers into the elastic band and have a firm grip on the upper plate.

          I did the same thing for the lower plate, except I made the space in the sewn-in middle section larger so you could hook your thumb in it (although I discovered the puppet worked fine without this, I thought as an option it would be nice). Make sure to sew the strips on the side you DON’T want to be the inside of the mouth. I sewed it on the pink side so the red side was the inside of the mouth. In the < shape, the pink is the outside, and the red is the inside.


          At this point, I shamelessly started snapping the mouth open and closed and making outrageous noises. You can do this too, if you want.

          Step 4: Paper Pattern for Foam Head

          After my break, I moved on to the paper pattern for the foam. I first measured from the edge of one plate to the middle of the curved edge, to get half the circumference for the “mouth” of the foam. I did this to both sides. I drew straight lines with those measurements in a L shape, and then drew an oblong circle with little slices cut out in certain places. The idea is this, if you cut a “V” shape and have the lines slightly curved OUT, it will result in a rounded shape. If you have lines that curve slightly IN, it will result in a curved, dipped shape, like a bowl. By adding curved OUT slices in various places where I thought a head would be rounded, I could make a rounded head out of two pieces of flat foam.


          It helped to think of this as making a 3D foam head with a center seam directly through the center face, but trying to render that in a flat 2D paper pattern. This takes practice, effort, and in my case, guesswork.

          Step 5: Foam Assembly

          I’ve worked with foam and hot glue a lot for other projects, so I can mess with it somewhat organically, which is in fact what happened. My foam head came out very cone-headed when I glued it, but the chin was very nice and Jon-like; I just needed to trim back some excess foam neck-fat. So I took scissors and reduced the top of the head by an inch or so, and made more gently curved OUT lines, which rounded the head more. I took the area under the chin and cut it a bit more so the lines turned IN, which tucked in the under-chin area a bit. Through this process, I refined my original pattern.

          I DID make a BIG mistake here, though. When I drew the mouth lines in my pattern, I did them at an easy 90º angle instead of 45º. This put WAAAY to much stress on the foam when I tried to close the mouth. The combination of high density foam and overextended angle meant I could not close the mouth without the rest of the foam deforming HORRIBLY. LEARN FROM MY MISTAKE. 45º angle. ½” foam. This is the PROPER way to do things.

          Frustrated, I walked away for a little while. When you feel like you’ve hit a wall with a project, it helps to just not work on it for few minutes. After calming down, I just cut the bottom jaw off (and cleaned some of the excess foam and hot glue away from the mouth plate), trimmed it a TINY bit so it better matched the cuts I made separating it from the top jaw, and then I reattached it with the mouth plates at a 45º-ish angle. AND IT WORKED. I might have let out a maniacal laugh. Just a tiny one. Another thing I would do differently is glue the foam so it hugged the outside of the mouth plates, instead of gluing the foam to the TOP of the mouth plates. I think I could have had more expression if I had done this, but I also don’t think it would have worked with the 1” foam, so I made do and will experiment more in the future.

          Anyway, now I had a foam head shape. EXCITEMENT.

          Step 6: Facial Features

          Next, I took a blue sharpie and drew on where I wanted the eyes and nose to go. Then I took some foam scraps and carefully cut them into different shapes with scissors. I made lips, noses, brows, different chins, and then pinned them on in different configurations to see what would look the most like Jon. I eventually settled for a VERY CAREFULLY carved nose (where I glued together a block of foam, drew his nose from the side view on the side and the front view on the front, and then carefully cut away until it looked like his nose) a top lip, and a bottom lip. I glued the lips on the foam head (the nose I left alone for now).  


          Step 7: Body

          For the body, it was the same process as the head except I just took a pattern that looked like a curved out flat-topped triangle and cut out three of them from the foam. After I glued them together, I again cut and re-glued the shapes until I felt it was the right shape and size.

          Step 8: Hands

          For the hands, I actually drew my hand pattern, traced two of them onto the foam, cut them out, and VERY CAREFULLY cut them in half. Yes, I cut 1” foam into ½” foam. Yes, it would have been easier to buy ½” foam and just cut our four hands. Yes, I made do. And it worked! I now had four ½” foam hands.

          Using the same paper pattern, I bent 18-gauge wire into the general shape of the fingers, then twisted the wire so for every finger there was one twisted wire. I then glued that to a cut side of the hand foam. Then I glued the other half of the cut foam hand to that one so it was once again a 1” hand, but I left an open pocket near the heel of the hand on the pinky side. I repeated the process with the second hand. Then I glued the edges of the foam hand and fingers together so there was a curved seam instead of a straight edge (leaving the pinky-heel pocket open). I now had poseable hands.

          I then took a string of glass beads and glued one end to the inside of the foam hand pocket, and the other into a hole I poked into the shoulder of the body. I repeated that for the other glass bead string and hand. The hands were now attached to the “arms” of my puppet. The beads act as a weight leading to the floppy characteristic of a Muppet.

          Step 9: Fabric “Skin”

          It was all coming together! Now I needed to cover the foam in fabric.

          Unfortunately, none of my local stores had skin-colored fleece, so I had to dye my own. I bought a warm-toned ivory fleece to start. You CANNOT dye fleece (which is a polyester product) with normal dye. The exception is if this fleece is something called Antron fleece, which is what professional Muppet makers use (and is super SUPER expensive). Antron fleece is nylon, and nylon CAN be dyed by normal dyes (which I just thought was an interesting fact, and good to know if anybody out there has a nylon whatever they want to dye). Since my fleece was polyester, I had to buy a polyester dye (which they do make and sell). The two brands I know of are Jaquard’s iDye Poly and Rit DyeMore. These brands WILL dye “synthetic” fibers. SO I grabbed some DyeMore in red and sandstone (a greenish-yellow).

          I did some proportional color tests using ¼ teaspoons and a mug in the microwave. I found that when added to water, a stronger proportion of sandstone was needed. So I gathered up my fabric (prewashed for better dye adherence) and a plastic bin. I ran the tub water until it was at its hottest and added the entire container of sandstone and less than half of the red. I then stirred the fabric in the hot water until the water became just warm, and the color appeared slightly darker than what I wanted. I then grabbed a corner of the fabric and washed out the tip to make sure the color was still what I wanted even after washed. It was! So I heaved the fabric out of the bin, washed out most of it in the tub, then rinse cycled the rest of the dye out. Flesh toned fabric!

          I used the same patterns I used for the foam head, body, and hands, and cut that out of the fabric. I also cut out four strips for the arms and a large piece for the neck and body “tube.” I pinned the fabric on and trimmed it to the foam (again leaving that ¼” allowance). I cut an extra piece for the nose, and adhesive sprayed the fleece carefully to the nose. Then I Henson- stitched the “face” part of the head, all of the body, the arms, and the hands. I sewed the “face” part of the head fabric to the felt mouth plates, then took spray adhesive and CAREFULLY sprayed the foam and inside of the fabric, and tugged, stroked, and tacked the fabric to the foam as tightly as possible. I then Henson-stitched the rest of the head up, leaving (and actually cut a bit larger) the hole where the hand goes in the back of the head. I did the same thing to the body, fitting the fabric like a “glove” over the foam then spray gluing it down.

          Now, I just had to attach the features…

          Step 10: Ears and Eyes

          The ears are just “C” shapes Henson-stitched onto the head. The eyes are just ping pong balls, with a blue felt iris. I painted the pupil black and added a white highlight. I also added a lighter blue highlight and a dark ring around the iris, for more depth. The felt iris is just glued on. I took some fleece, and glued a black strip of felt to one side. This served as the eyelid and eyelash. I then glued the “eyelash” part to the ping ball in the style I wanted (a relaxed eyelid look). I didn’t glue the fleece part just yet. I cut away some fleece from the head where I wanted the eyes and nose to go. I glued the nose to the open foam, and then Henson-stitched the nose to the face. I dug out little craters where the eyes were going to go, so they could set back in the head a bit more. I glued the ping pong balls into the craters, making sure they were looking in the same direction. Then I glued the eyelid fleece to the ping pong ball, stopping short of where the ball meets the head fleece. I trimmed the excess eyelid and eyelash fabric away, then Henson-stitched them to the head.


          I sewed one end of the neck piece around the head opening on the body (where the hand goes), and stuffed the rest of the neck into the body hole. After checking the head and neck were facing the right direction (using the hands as guides, thumb forward means front) I then attached the other end of the neck piece to bottom of the body, this time just using a basic stitch that still tucked the seam down. I then sewed the neck to the upper body hole using the Henson stitch. I sewed up one side of the arms (Henson stitch) and then sewed the other side while it was around the beads, so when I finished sewing the beads would be on the inside of the tube arms. Then I lightly stuffed them, and attached them to the hands and body using the Henson stitch. The fleecing was complete!


          Step 11: Hair

          Next, I took the wig and cut two small wefts for the sideburns.


          Then I took the front of the wig and bent it under toward the back, so the hair wefts remaining in the wig all faced backward instead of forward and hid the wig’s bangs. I then tacked the wig down in certain locations and cut it to the appropriate length. Using a fabric pen, I dotted the fleece to create facial stubble. I also added black felt eyebrows. The final touches were attaching the final black throat piece and the pink tongue felt to the inside of the mouth, and putting a small On the Spot t-shirt that I made onto the body.


          Step 12: Arm Rods

          For the arm rods, I took a small clear tube and bent it into a curved shape using more wire. Then I inserted the curved tube into the hand pocket and glued it in. I Henson-stitched the fleece around the resulting tube hole snugly, then took a tiny amount of hot glue and adhered the fabric to the tube. I found some tomato sticks (green poles with a flat bottom to hold on to) and painted them black, and slightly bent the tips. They fit perfectly into the tubes and work as great removable puppet rods, so the Muppet’s clothes can be changed easily.

          So that’s it! The story about how I created Muppet Jon. I honestly can’t wait to try and make some more puppets in the future. It might have been a difficult first project, but I learned a ton, and had fun doing so.

          Thanks for reading!

          <3 @QuirkyQritters

        • Fan Art Friday #57: Ruby Rose Cosplay by Mangoloo

          6 days ago

          Rooster Teeth Poppycock

          It’s time for our weekly look at the best Rooster Teeth fan art from our community, curated by the fine folks at BIGBITE!

          This week’s featured artist is @Mangoloo, from Labinnak & Mangoloo Cosplays, for this Ruby Rose cosplay with a transforming Crescent Rose.


          Mangoloo lives in Virginia, where she’s a cosplay and makeup artist. This cosplay took about five months to create. Here’s what she had to say about that process:

          I could honestly write a novel on how I created this project. Let’s start with Crescent Rose because EVERYONE has asked me how I created it. I broke the prop down into several components because looking at the entire mechanism is honestly an engineering nightmare. There is the staff, which is essentially two Mr. Long Arms bolted together with springs on the interior and a long aluminum bar running up and down the staff which meet in the middle to allow for the contraption to lock in the retracted position. There is the head of the scythe which is held to the staff with a custom aluminum pipe. Head is primarily made out of gator foam, which is a high density lightweight foam. Each piece of the scythe has a joint that allows the parts to pivot and fold into each other. Torsion springs are used to give it a push to unfold when the staff mechanism is released off the lock. Springs push it into spring loaded locks that hold the scythe open and relieves the pressure on the torsion springs.

          Moving on to the cosplay… Everything was made from scratch. Big thing that I focused on in this project was structure. I wanted everything to look and feel like what the character would be wearing. I didn't have a high budget so I took cheaper everyday items and made them look legit (for instance, the gauntlets are actually cereal boxes covered in vinyl to look like leather). The corset took me the longest time out of the entire costume to make; it took about a week of nonstop work. It is boned and lined for a more professional look and accurate character silhouette. Belt is made out of craft foam, vinyl, and pleather. The bullets attached to the belt are made out of Sharpies and foam. To give the skirt the “poof” that it needed, I hand sewed horsehair braid along the entire edge of the black and red circle skirt, then finished it off with a made-from-scratch petticoat that hides underneath it all. The stockings are an interesting case – I actually have a tutorial here. I drew the rose on a pair of pantyhose, then put the knee highs on top to give the illusion that it’s on the knee highs. For the boots, I had to cut them down to get the right height. (The boots even have pockets!) The backpack (which no one sees) has a lot of detail. It’s fully functional and is designed exactly like the concept art for it (pockets included on the interior). It’s entirely vinyl but lined and batted to give it a leather look. Metal bits are actually pieces of worbla and paper brackets. And finally the hood/cape/scarf and rose emblem… The hood/cape was interesting to draft because they both had to attach to each other. The rose emblem is a foam interior sandwiched between worbla and painted to make it more realistic (base coat, shadows, highlights, weathering, etc.).


          Want a chance to be featured in future Fan Art Fridays? Head over to the Fan Art Friday thread in the Art forum to find out how!

        • Fan Art Friday #56: Crescent Rose by PaulKaryakos

          1 week ago

          Rooster Teeth Poppycock

          It’s time for our weekly look at the best Rooster Teeth fan art from our community, curated by the fine folks at BIGBITE!

          This week’s featured artist is Paul Karyakos, AKA @PaulKaryakos, for this fully functional NERF gun Crescent Rose.


          Paul lives in San Diego, California, where he’s a full-time chef and part-time ninja. This Crescent Rose was created with a massive amount of superglue, EVA foam, PVC board, a heavily modified NERF gun, and a lot of patience.


          Want a chance to be featured in future Fan Art Fridays? Head over to the Fan Art Friday thread in the Art forum to find out how!

        • Answers to Questions Posed in RT Podcast #417

          2 weeks ago

          Rooster Teeth Poppycock

          It's time for our regular segment in which @Gafgarian (AKA Jeremiah Palmer) provides answers to the burning questions left unanswered in each episode of the Rooster Teeth Podcast. Read on to get closure for Puppies Like Pancakes – #417.


          Which Guitar Hero were Gavin and Gus playing in that old photo?


          Based on the controllers and the year, the most recently released version of Guitar Hero at that time would've been Guitar Hero II. Released for Xbox 360 in April 2007, it quickly grew to be one of the most popular in the franchise, eclipsed only by Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock, though most attribute that to the song collection of the latter game.

          For the trivia-minded among you, Guitar Hero II was arguably the last “real” Guitar Hero developed by Harmonix. Technically, Guitar Hero Encore: Rock the 80s was their final entry, though it was nothing more than an ‘80s reskin of Guitar Hero II, adding no additional gameplay elements. Harmonix would later go on to develop the Rock Band series.

          Do the emails still work?

          First things first, Becca’s old email does not work anymore. However, from what I can tell, a few old emails still throw a valid ping to the mail exchange server. I suspect this is due to a direct forwarding DNS from the original exchange to their currently mapped email addresses, but I can't be sure of that without sending an email and getting a report back from the respective owners on the results. It is also possible that the emails are no longer mapped at all and are a forgotten relic of the origin redvsblue DNS assignment.

          What is the day before Ash Wednesday called?

          The day before Ash Wednesday is officially known as Shrove Tuesday, or, depending on your location, colloquially known as Pancake Day or Fat Tuesday (Mardi Gras). The origination of the name "Shrove" comes from the English word "shrive," which means to "confess or receive absolution." The intention of the day's observation is to bring about a period of cleansing in preparation for the observation of Lent, the 40-day season between Ash Wednesday and the Saturday before Easter, also known as Holy Saturday. The 40 days represent the 40 days Jesus is said to have spent wandering the wilderness being tempted by Satan, prior to his ministry. In the early days of the church, Lent was typically a time of mass baptism and conversion; however, today's observations by Christians typically involve temporarily giving up something of temptation, desire, or value to the believer.

          Shrove Tuesday, originally intended to be a period of observation and reflection prior to the metaphorical "40-day temptation" of the everyday Christian, has its roots in the Middle Ages. While wholesome in intention, over the course of the last six centuries or so the observation has ironically devolved, generally, into a day of festival, hedonism, and indulgence. In modern parlance, the day's meaning has effectively become the direction to squeeze in as much "temptation" as possible before being forced to give it up until Easter.

          The exact date of the pancake's inclusion in these festivities is unknown; however, the likely time period is somewhere around the early-to-mid-15th century. The first known occurrence of the pancake in a cookbook was in 1439 and, perhaps predictably, the recipe seemed very tied to the religious ideals of Shrove Tuesday. It called for eggs (to symbolize creation), flour (as the staff of life), salt (for wholesomeness), and milk (for purity). Later, the bells calling Anglo-Saxon Christians to confession would come to be known as "Pancake Bells," and Pancake Races became a regular occurrence on the day as well.

          The origin of the Pancake Races, like the date of the pancake's inclusion, is an unknown as well. Urban legends from various small towns in England have laid claim to 500+ year-old stories of an old woman running through the town in her apron, with a frying pan, flipping a pancake, on her way to the church. The most widely accepted being a 1445 housewife from Buckignhamshire.

          Fans of The Amazing Race may remember the Pancake Race detour from Episode 2 of Season 25. Now you know why that is a thing...

          The rationale behind shoving pancake in your face to bring glory to God was actually far more about practicality than religious circumstance. The rough-around-the-edges reason is that people just needed to get rid of their food before lent since staples such as meat, eggs, milk, fish, and fats were banned, thus spoiling before Easter. Pancakes consumed many of these ingredients quickly and easily.

          Similarly, to the south, France's observation became known as "Fat Tuesday" because of their consumption of fatty foods to avoid spoiling. Or, if its Pagan origins are to be believed, the Pagan custom of leading a fat ox through town on its way to slaughter in order to kick off the spring festival. In either case, Fat Tuesday later became known as Mardi Gras, and, given that this festival has become an event of notable debauchery, it is very likely that the original intention of the celebration has been all but lost on most of the party-goers. In New Orleans, specifically, the period known as Mardi Gras now stretches from the last night of Christmas (The Twelfth Night) through Fat Tuesday; however, in the several places around the world which hold their own Mardi Gras, the dates vary greatly, with most countries sticking to the original three-day observation from the Sunday before and being capped by a grand feast on the night of Shrove Tuesday. One notable observation that has become associated with the celebrations around Shrove Tuesday is Carnival, which, in many ways, rivals the New Orleans Mardi Gras with its own level of debauchery. In fact, it was this general loss of control and over-indulgence which led the Church to officially restrict Shrove Tuesday's observations to one day only. However, in contemporary times, this is rarely adhered to.

          With the exception of strictly observant Catholics or Anglicans, the modern view of Shrove Tuesday, for most, rarely extends beyond a general knowledge of pancakes and parties.

          Did Emma Stone have her envelope the whole time?

          She did. Unfortunately, according to PriceWaterhouseCoopers accountant Brian Cullinan, there are apparently two identical stacks of envelopes that are stored in two identical locked briefcases until they are needed for the ceremony. Brian and fellow accountant Martha Ruiz were in charge of handing out the envelopes on Oscar night. Unfortunately for Brian, considering he tweeted a picture of Emma Stone shortly after her Best Actress win, he may have been a bit distracted and accidentally handed Warren Beatty HIS Best Actress envelope. Leonardo DiCaprio, having entered from Ruiz's side of the stage for the previous award, presumably received the Best Actress card Emma Stone "was holding the whole time" from that side. Cullinan, perhaps distracted by Stone, neglected to shift his stack and mistakenly handed the previous envelope to Beatty and Dunaway.

          It would be crazy to assume that Emma Stone had any understanding of the logistics of the award show so, for her part, she was just attempting to make sense of what happened as well and, it seemed from her comments, shift possible blame away from her or Leonardo DiCaprio.

          In an interesting turn, Cullinan had actually been interviewed at the beginning of February about the award show's planning, and was asked what would happen if the wrong envelope given to a presenter. His response was: "Whether that entails stopping the show, us walking onstage, us signalling to the stage manager. That’s really a game-time decision, if something like that were to happen. It’s so unlikely."

          I guess we now know the answer... all of the above, plus complete chaos.

          Has Emma Stone won a Golden Globe?

          Emma has won only one Golden Globe award, but has been nominated for two others. She received the Best Actress award for La La Land, but was nominated for Best Actress for Easy A, as well as a Best Supporting Actress nomination for her work in Birdman – losing to Annette Bening and Patricia Arquette, respectively.

          In addition to the Golden Globe and Oscar wins, she has another 30+ awards to her name, including three SAG awards and an additional 100+ nominations through various award ceremonies.

          What is sorghum?

          Originally from Africa and believed to have come to America aboard slave ships, sorghum is a cereal grain that has been gaining in popularity since the gluten-free, non-GMO movement has become more mainstream. For years, an estimated 95% of the crop is used as animal feed or biofuel, with the remaining 5% dedicated to human consumption. Those numbers are changing with the movement as well. In the early 1900s and especially in depression era America, sorghum molasses became the go-to sweetener in the South, most likely due to its lower cost when compared to honey or sugarcane as well as its natural resistance to drought. In some African countries, sorghum has been a staple food source for over 4,000 years. The use of sorghum internationally as a food source is much more prevalent. If you have eaten Indian dishes known as roti or chapati, or tried gluten-free beer, you have likely already consumed sorghum in some way.

          Additionally, since sorghum requires less water than corn or other wheats, environmental researchers have performed extensive studies into the cultivation of sorghum in warmer climates affected by climate change.

          Regarding Maotai specifically, it is only one of many different brands of baijiu. Baijiu is a distilled Chinese liquor also known as shaojiu or sorghum wine. It has been made for over five millennia and is actually the best-selling type of liquor in the world. Several American distillers and distributors have attempted to introduce it to us and, for various reasons (usually related to cost), the "earthy" liquor has never really taken hold. Arguably one of the few distributors to somewhat succeed in introducing the west to sorghum wine is Byejoe Spirits, headquartered in Houston, Texas. Byejoe's CEO, Matt Trusch, recommends starting slow and sipping, or visiting a trendy bar that has managed to create a good cocktail using it as a base. Lists of these suggested bars can be found on his company's site.

          How big is a turtle's sinus cavity?

          Obviously the size of a turtle's sinus cavity depends on the age, sex, and species of turtle; however, in reference to the specific sea turtle discussed, the sinus cavity was likely around four inches, or roughly the entire length of the lodged straw.

          As you can see from the image below, a sea turtle's sinus cavity, similar to our own nasal structure, is open to the mouth. The researchers, who arguably saved the sea turtle's life, believe that the turtle likely swallowed the straw at some point after mistakenly believing it to be food. He later attempted to regurgitate the plastic straw, which led it to be lodged into his nose and sinuses from the inside, rather than externally.


          Vegetarians and anemia?

          Iron deficiency in vegetarians is a very real concern due to what is essentially cutting out the most iron-rich foods available. If a vegetarian does not take special care to supplement this loss of iron with a greater intake of high-iron-volume, non-meat foods, anemia is an unfortunate but likely affliction. Quick ways to increase iron levels include increasing your intake of vitamin C, avoiding tea or coffee, ensure legumes are a part of every meal and/or snack (i.e., peanuts and peas, learn to love them!), or, as Becca mentioned, cook your foods, especially pastas and sauces, in a cast iron skillet.

          It is important to note that while meats do typically contain much higher sources of iron, a normal healthy vegetarian diet can easily provide a healthy alternative source of iron. While plants do not contain greater quantities of iron, their likelihood of being eaten in greater quantities and variety can actually increase iron consumption and, in some cases, a vegan diet may actually contain more iron than a non-vegetarian. The key difference in this is that the absorption of iron from plant-based sources requires an extra step of digestion which involves using more of the body's energy stores, particularly a protein called transferrin. This leads to an increased risk of anemia or other vitamin shortage maladies due to an inefficiency during digestion.

          I briefly touched on this idea a few weeks ago when discussing our bodies' natural affinity to an omnivore diet, but the essential point of this boils down to a pretty simple understanding. If you are going to choose to live a life that is most certainly outside of the direction our evolution and organic construction has prepared us for, that is your choice. However, you must be aware that you are fighting against your body's expected way of survival. It isn't a question of whether it can, or even should, be done. It is just a matter of understanding that you have to pay more attention to you because your body isn't as equipped to do it for you. So… you do you, but be safe about it.

          Are you supposed to have a lot of iron when you are pregnant?

          You are. Along with pregnancy anemia posing a greater risk of early delivery and infant mortality, it also helps ensure a healthy immune system. The reason behind the increase in iron is due to the increase in blood production. Iron is essential in making hemoglobin, which is what red blood cells rely on to carry oxygen throughout the body. During pregnancy, an expectant mother can see as much as a 50% increase in the amount of blood inside their body. This increase in blood, naturally, demands an increase in hemoglobin. Without the added iron to your diet, anemia is extremely likely. While most moms-to-be can supplement this need for iron with a few extra pieces of chicken, many will just opt for the prenatal vitamin which covers iron as well as several other possible vitamin deficiencies.

          Why is cooking with a cast iron skillet better?

          This depends on whose grandma you are asking, but the general consensus is that they provide a simple "one-pan" cooking method. Occasionally you will see articles referencing increased vitamin infusion or "flavor sharing" but, aside from a slight increase in iron intake, there is very little "shared" vitamins, regardless of what your grandma may have told you.

          There are a few other "facts" which I feel need to be clarified before we can move on.

          The first is that cast iron skillets distribute heat more evenly than modern pans. Unfortunately, again despite your grandmother's insistence, this is simply untrue. In fact, the "casting" of a cast iron skillet naturally leads to slight imperfections in the metal as it hardens, be they air pockets, bits of foreign matter, or uneven hardening during cooling. These imperfections actually lead the skillets to be TERRIBLE at even heating. Additionally, iron's thermal conductivity is around a quarter of aluminum's, which means that, directly over the flame, it is very easy and normal to get extremely hot spots while the rest of the pan remains somewhat cool. Where cast iron does flourish, and perhaps what led to this "even heated" confusion, is its ability to retain heat. In other words, while it may be somewhat of a chore to get the skillet fully heated, it stays hot for a while once it gets there. Additionally, cast iron radiates a large portion of its heat as well, which is what gives you the ability to cook everything from steak to biscuits because you are cooking food above the rim of the pan as well as what is in it.

          Next up is the idea that cast iron pans are non-stick. I'm sad to say that anyone who has used a cast iron skillet for any amount of time, regardless of how well "seasoned" it is, cannot possibly believe that it is more non-stick than a modern Teflon pan. While a well-heated cast iron skillet with a bit of oil should function as a non-stick pan just fine, Teflon it is not.

          On to soap and water washing. Get off your high horse and wash your damn dishes! Seriously do it. Here is the dea: the "seasoning" on your beloved pan is what is known as a polymerized oil. What this means is that the oil has been continuously broken down and bonded, at a chemical level, to the metal itself. It is this bonding that creates the non-stick, Teflon-like surface. While soap is intended to break down oil, in this case, the oil's bonding to the metal protects it from being broken down by the soap. Assuming that you are not allowing the pan to just soak in the soapy water, a quick scrub is perfectly acceptable and, depending on the mess, encouraged. That said, most cases can, and should, be solved by a quick rinse with hot water followed by a drying session on the stove, but the next time you make an utter mess of your pan, don't be afraid to use a quick squirt of Dawn.

          For the polymerized oil reason above, you also should not be afraid to use metal utensils on your skillet. Iron is a resilient material, obviously, and a properly seasoned pan will not be damaged by the occasional scrape of a spatula. Assuming you are not literally gouging the metal, you don't really pose a risk to the seasoned coating.

          Lastly, the age of your pan does affect your ability to cook, but likely not in the way you may think. Most owners of cast iron skillets feel that their centuries-old pan that has been handed down through multiple generations is the best because of the amount of food that has been cooked in it over the years. While there is little doubt that this process has absolutely locked down that whole polymerized oil seasoning we discussed above, it is far more likely that the reason your pan is "the best" has more to do with when and how it was cast rather than how much it has been used. Although virtually nothing has changed with regards to the iron used, the casting process and production method has changed just enough to be in a pain in the ass. One important part of the old school production cycle was a final polishing of the pan's interior. The removal of this roughed up surface prior to use allowed for a more even bonding during seasoning and would create a better non-stick surface as well as a more even cook, assuming the pan is properly heated. Unfortunately, the modern production process has dropped this step, effectively causing all modern cast iron skillets to be of a slightly lower quality than the original pan your grandma willed to you.

          What are you not supposed to put in the dishwasher?

          Ultimately, I would defer to the manufacturer's recommendations on the various utensils and flatware; however, generally speaking, most recommend against putting wood, knives, crystal, pots & pans, or anything with gold/silver trim in the dishwasher. There are a myriad of reasons for each of these recommendations, but most relate to the eventual, and likely, ruining of the washed item in some way. For example, wood has the potential of permanent warping due to the hot water, and knives will be dulled by the use of harsh detergent or high pressure water jets. This latter point is also the reason why flatware with gold or silver trim should be washed by hand, as the high pressure will likely strip away the coating on those dishes as well. With respect to pots and pans specifically, most only adamantly oppose putting pots and pans with a non-stick coating through a dishwasher; however, there are many who would state that none should go through a cycle because of the possibility of loosening handles and seals, or other general destruction of the pot or pan.

          Is pancake and waffle batter the same thing?

          While it is true that most hotels and even the batter manufacturers tend to present the two batters as the same thing, true waffle batter has some very real differences to that of pancakes. In much the same way crepe batter has a slightly different consistency and a few additional ingredients, waffle batter also sets itself apart from pancake batter in a few key ways. First, it should be noted that the reason there HAS to be a difference between these two batters is because waffles are made to have a much crisper outside and lighter inside than pancakes. While the geometry of a waffle does contribute to this in many ways, a higher percentage of sugar, for higher amounts of caramelization, also helps with building that crispy exterior. Additional, a higher amount of fat helps lock down that waffle outside as well.

          However, all of this batter is essentially some combination of eggs, flour, leavening agent, sugar, milk, etc., so at some level they are all close enough to make the argument that they are the "same batter." It is just a question of whether great pancake batter makes a great waffle or a great crepe. My answer would be no. Could it make one, sure, but not necessarily a great one.

          Percentage of morning vs. evening showers?

          When I originally wrote this question down, I was expecting to get some sort of clear winner. Unfortunately, after reviewing 10 different polls with participants numbering from a few hundred to a few thousand, there is just not a consensus. It looks like, for the most part, there are more morning showers than evening; however, based on some of the accompanying comments, the margin of error looks to be pretty equal to those who feel that showering is more about convenience/timing than anything else. With that in mind, can we really count that as a valid motivation for showering in the morning?

          Various blog posts and articles on the subject have taught me a few things that I can pass on. First are the morning showers. According to a PSU entry, those who identify themselves as having oily skin, work in a creative field, or are not "morning people" should try for the morning showers as a way to, respectively, clear out pores that have been blocked during sleep or to "clear out the cobwebs" and relieve the grogginess of sleep.

          For the nightly shower, the reasons include the need to feel clean before being able to sleep, help to moisturize dry skin and/or clean off makeup, and general difficulty falling asleep. For the last point, several studies have shown that a nightly shower is a relaxing, stress-relieving experience for many. Interestingly, these same studies have also explained that, for some, a shower is an invigorating and stimulating experience. The difference being the nighttime versus the morning shower.

          Naturally, this is where you all come in. Which are you? How does the RT Community break down? Only this Strawpoll will tell.

          Sugar rushes and highs are not actually a thing?

          This is 100% true... Which means I can no longer blame my children's bad behavior on an overload of sugar. Well, that blows. Let's get to the details!

          It is difficult to say where the link between sugar and hyperactivity first occurred, but most researchers point to a mid-1970s study in which 265 "hyperkinetic," or essentially insanely hyper children, were admitted to outpatient treatment for their excessive energy. The only connection between these children besides, presumably, them being children, was what appeared to be an abnormally low blood sugar level. Diagnosed as reactive hypoglycemia, it was surmised that their excessive consumption of sugar led them to be extremely hyperkinetic while also having low blood sugar. Follow-up studies occurred within the next few years, including studies which specifically compared two differently sugared-up sets of children. This study's results would show that the children identified as being more "clinically hyperactive" had also been the children that had consumed more sugar prior to the review period. Later review of both of these studies have shown glaring flaws in their construction and implementation. However, the damage was done.

          This particular "fake news" pervaded quickly and most of the relevant scientific community has spent the better part of four decades attempting to set the record straight. Eventually these multiple independent studies and reports culminated in a 1995 meta-analysis in the Journal of the American Medical Association. In it, they reviewed 23 studies conducted between 1983 and 1994, all of which were conducted using a viable double-blind test involving a stated control group, placebos, and various artificial and natural sweeteners, as well as their immediate effects on the children involved. The meta-analysis study found that there was absolutely no "statistically significant" effect of sugar on a child's mood. Beyond the kid just being happy to get a lollipop.

          The official conclusion stated:"The meta-analytic synthesis of the studies to date found that sugar does not affect the behavior or cognitive performance of children. The strong belief of parents may be due to expectancy and common association. However, a small effect of sugar or effects on subsets of children cannot be ruled out."

          Well, damn...

          Seinfeld episode about eating from the trash?


          What is the difference between a Mars bar and a Milky Way?

          There is essentially none. Technically the UK version is slightly longer and taller, but they are effectively no different. This was a purposeful decision by the creator of the Mars bar, Forrest Mars. As son of the infamous candy maker Frank C. Mars, Forrest purposefully modeled what would become the Mars bar off of his father's very successful Milky Way bar.

          On this side of the pond, the Milky Way bar was originally launched in 1924 to great acclaim. Its appearance in the UK would occur after the 1932 introduction of the Mars bar, which is why it appears to be a different bar entirely. The removal of the caramel and a smaller amount of chocolate coating was a decision made by Mars, Inc in order to make inroads in the European candy market. The 3 Musketeers bar was simultaneously launched in America because why not?! Naturally, it was given a different name because there was already a Milky Way bar in America.

          Hopefully someone pings @Gavino with this so he can finally get some peace of mind.

          Why is a Kit Kat in the US made by Hershey but Nestle everywhere else?

          Originally developed by Rowntree's of York, England in 1911, Kit Kats are currently produced in 16 countries by Nestle and by Hershey in one. The reason for this separation is because Kit Kat is produced under licensing rights. The short story is, in 1969 Rowntree merged with Mackintosh, another small UK-based chocolate company made famous for the Rolo bar. This merge was in an effort to expand globally; however, despite being able to create some small distribution streams on this side of the Atlantic, Rowntree-Mackintosh slowly lost traction. In the late 1960s, Rowntree-Mackintosh partnered with Phillip-Morris (of Marlboro fame) to handle American distribution, before finally teaming up with Hershey in 1970. In 1978, the contract was renegotiated, granting Hershey the rights to both manufacture and distribute Kit Kats and Rolos in the US "in perpetuity." It is this permanent licensing deal that has remained a thorn in the spine of Nestle since they purchased the failing Rowntree-Mackintosh candy company in 1988.

          For those interested in this, or other candy lore, TheCandyGeek is pretty damn interesting.

          What is the origin of the word "treacle"?

          The origin of "treacle" actually goes back to the greek word "thēriakos," which meant "of a wild animal." Its transition to the use case we, or rather the UK, may recognize has to do with Romans borrowing the related word "thēriakē," meaning "antidote," and creating "theriaca." This then gave rise to the Middle English "triacle," which eventually evolved to "treacle." Molasses, otherwise known as "black treacle," gets its origination from the same antidote usage, with the slight implication of being a "sweeter antidote."

          What is up with Gavin's “new” landing experience?

          This was likely what is known as a Cat III landing. It is also sometimes referred to as an ILS autolanding. In other words, the plane landed itself. It varies by airline, but most require a live test of the CAT III procedure at various established flight hours. The instruction to turn electronic devices completely off is not always accompanying the ILS autolanding. This is largely up to the discretion of the captain and is usually dependent on weather conditions upon landing. If instrumentation is reporting possible interference sources or it is especially foggy, the instruction to turn off all possible interference sources is standard fare.

          Is LA a vacation destination?

          This would depend on who is doing the vacationing. For those of us who don't make regular trips to Hollywood, LA is surely on the bucket lists of some community members. With regards to its consideration as a vacation destination, I can tell you that there are more than a few travel sites trying to get me to drop thousands to go there. I can also tell you that, according to USNews Travel rankings, LA ranks fifth among the Best Shopping Destinations and the Best Foodie Destinations in the US. Additionally, it ranks sixth for Best Nightlife in the US and is seventh on their list of overall Best Spring Vacations.

          Personally, it wasn't terrible when I visited. The food is good, everything is overpriced, and the "touristy" streets are far too crowded; it felt a lot like NYC in that way. That said, other than the fact that every surfing movie I've ever seen never bothered to mention how damn cold the Pacific Ocean is, I had a good time.

          What is the definition of "vacation"?

          According to Merriam-Webster, a vacation is "a respite or a time of respite from something." Alternative definitions include "a scheduled period during which activity (as of a court or school) is suspended" and "a period spent away from home or business in travel or recreation." Despite that final definition, the internet consensus seems to be that a vacation is generally being able to spend time outside of the daily grind and is not really dependent on where you happen to be.

          Bonus Question/Answer from ALWAYS OPEN #19! (Because the RT Podcast isn't the only one throwing out random, albeit rhetorical, curiosities.)

          Do toes have names like fingers?

          They certainly do! However, only the "Big Toe" has an "official" name. The other toes vary in name, but, generally speaking, are usually referred to as the following (in order from largest to smallest):

          • The Hallux or "Big Toe"

          • Second Toe, "Long Toe," or "Index Toe"

          • Third Toe or "Middle Toe"

          • Fourth Toe or "Ring Toe"

          • Fifth Toe or "Pinky Toe"

          The practice of only naming the Big Toe, and occasionally the Pinky, is pretty standard across most languages. Theories on the rationale behind having names for fingers but not for toes typically point to the idea that our toes rarely do anything individually, so do not need to be addressed as such. In other words, there is no "Pinky" in team!

          Swedish is one notable exception to the whole most-languages-do-not-name-toes thing. A fairly popular Swedish nursery rhyme gives the toes' names as Lilltåa, Tåtilla, Kroknoso, Tillerosa, and Stortimpen. I suppose, by that logic, their names could be referred to as the "Market," "Lazy," "Fat," "Starving," and "Baby" Piggies, but that is far less impressive than Kroknoso... what a name! Time to create the next RT Community inside joke and start giving everyone the Kroknoso Finger! :fu:

        • Fan Art Friday #55: Pyrrha Crest by Joron093

          2 weeks ago

          Rooster Teeth Poppycock

          It’s time for our weekly look at the best Rooster Teeth fan art from our community, curated by the fine folks at BIGBITE!

          This week’s featured artist is Joron (pronounced like “drawn”), AKA @Joron093, for this incredible brass and copper Pyrrha crest.



          Joron lives in Ketchikan, Alaska, where he’s a blacksmith (bladesmith to be precise) and part-time videographer for his local news channel.

          Curious about how something like this is made? Here’s what Joron had to say about that process:

          “I cut out brass and copper discs, raised them into shallow domes using a hammer, and cut the design out of the brass using a dremel tool and files; then the two domed pieces are sweat soldered together. I cut out the center piece of the spear from thin brass sheet with scissors, sweat soldered that on, then cut off a strip of metal from a cabinet door and shaped it for the clip, then soldered that on too. I polished the surface with a buffing wheel to get the glossy shine at the end.”

          This is the third crest Joron has made. Once his technique was streamlined, he was able to create this one in roughly five hours.


          Want a chance to be featured in future Fan Art Fridays? Head over to the Fan Art Friday thread in the Art forum to find out how!

        • Quiz: What’s Your Sexual Education Quotient (SEQ)?

          3 weeks ago

          Rooster Teeth Poppycock

          By @bransonbranson

          Teaching children about sexual education is of the utmost importance. Kids need to be armed with relevant, accurate sexual information and be knowledgeable of the sexual realities that they will be dealing with in their adolescence. However, is the information we equip kids with nowadays even known by most adults? Take this quiz to find out where you stand.

          1. How many STD’s have been contracted this year alone?

          A) I don’t know

          B) 10,000,000

          C) 4,000,000

          D) It’s just a rash, don’t worry about it.

          Correct Answer: D. It’s cool, it’s just a rash. It happens sometimes. I have cream for it.

          2. Are condoms 100% effective?

          A) Yes

          B) No

          C) Who cares?

          Correct Answer: B. Condoms are not 100% effective. The FDA has said that condoms feel “weird.”

          3. When is pregnancy most likely to occur?

          A) During ovulation

          B) After you beat Zelda: Breath of the Wild

          C) When you haven’t had sex

          D) I don’t know

          Correct Answer: A and B. You are going to be a father and/or mother.

          4. What is a choad?

          A) A peener

          B) A shrimpo

          C) A turtle head

          D) A dinger

          Correct Answer: None. A choad is slightly bigger than a turtle head but smaller than a dinger, but wider. The World Dinger Association claims the width must exceed the length. This is the time in class when all the boys have to go to the gym and pull out their dingers in front of the nurse.

          5. How big is the average penis?

          A) 10 inches

          B) 11 inches

          C) 12 inches

          D) 13 inches

          Correct Answer: B

          If you passed, congratulations! You know as much about sex as a 9th grader!

          Side note: Alex Branson, the guy who wrote this quiz and many other funny articles on this site, just published his first novel. You can pick it up here.

        • Eleven Little Roosters Cosplay Guide: Gavin the 3rd

          3 weeks ago

          Rooster Teeth Poppycock

          Hello again, secret agents! It’s time for another Eleven Little Roosters cosplay guide, compliments of Erika Slay, Rooster Teeth’s costume designer. For this installment, we’re focusing on Gavin the 3rd.


          Jacket: Get hyped, because Gavin’s exact tuxedo jacket is still available!

          Shirt: Gavin wears a pretty standard white tuxedo shirt. Here’s an affordable option.

          Pants: These are pretty standard black, slim-fit suit pants – but NOT tuxedo pants. These pants have a similar look.

          Bow tie: Black bow ties are extremely easy to come by, but they can be difficult to tie. That’s why I recommend using a pre-tied bow tie, like this one.

          Lapel flower: If you don’t want to deal with a real flower in your lapel, a lapel pin with a faux flower is a great alternative.

          Shoes: Gavin sports black leather loafers featuring a stacked heel and a subtle metal accent across the top. Here’s a similar, affordable pair.

          We hope this guide came in handy for anyone who’s looking to cosplay as Gavin the 3rd. If you end up joining Military Intelligence: Section 6, make sure you share your photos with us!

        • Fan Art Friday #54: MrBunns

          3 weeks ago

          Rooster Teeth Poppycock

          It’s time for our weekly look at the best Rooster Teeth fan art from our community, curated by the fine folks at BIGBITE!

          This week’s featured artist is Brendan Horn, AKA @MrBunns, for this RWBY-inspired song entitled “As A Ghost.”

          Brendan is a musician based in Sydney, Australia. He had written a lot of songs based on how Jaune was feeling after losing Pyrrha, but he had an idea about Pyrrha looking down from the beyond and wanted to explore her thoughts and feelings. This track was recorded, edited, and produced by Brendan, and all instruments were performed by him except the main female vocals, which were performed by Gemma Horn.


          Want a chance to be featured in future Fan Art Fridays? Head over to the Fan Art Friday thread in the Art forum to find out how!

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